[78] Dragline oilers, dozer operators, and welders using air arcing were occupations with the highest noise exposures among surface coal miners. See more. [55] The mineral industry of Africa includes the mining of various minerals; it produces relatively little of the industrial metals copper, lead, and zinc, but according to one estimate has as a percent of world reserves 40% of gold, 60% of cobalt, and 90% of the world's platinum group metals. To gain access to the mineral deposit within an area it is often necessary to mine through or remove waste material which is not of immediate interest to the miner. Cave-ins, rock falls, and exposure to excess heat are also known hazards. Mining in the United States became prevalent in the 19th century, and the General Mining Act of 1872 was passed to encourage mining of federal lands. [93] There is also up to 20 MJ/kg of energy in waste, potentially making the re-extraction more profitable. mining definition: 1. the industry or activity of removing substances such as coal or metal from the ground by…. Different elements, particularly rare earth minerals, have begun to increase in demand as a result of new technologies. Mining Meaning in Arabic: Searching meanings in Arabic can be beneficial for understanding the context in an efficient manner. mining meaning. [57], While exploration and mining can be conducted by individual entrepreneurs or small businesses, most modern-day mines are large enterprises requiring large amounts of capital to establish. The new method "converts gold-containing ore into chloroauric acid and extracts it using an industrial solvent. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. [17] Black powder allowed blasting of rock and earth to loosen and reveal ore veins. Mining [a.] A prime issue in medieval mines, which Agricola explains in detail, was the removal of water from mining shafts. (Mining & Quarrying) the act, process, or industry of extracting coal, ores, etc, from the earth. The resulting thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed by further streams of water from the overhead tanks. Mining definition is - the process or business of working mines. The mine buildings and processing plants are built, and any necessary equipment is obtained. Verb(1) get from the earth by excavation(2) lay mines. [75] The Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) was established in 1978 to "work to prevent death, illness, and injury from mining and promote safe and healthful workplaces for US miners. The Push-beam system can penetrate nearly 1,000 feet (300 m) into the coal seam. You have searched the English word "Mining" which meaning "التعدين" in Arabic. Around the 14th century, the growing use of weapons, armour, stirrups, and horseshoes greatly increased the demand for iron. Stageloaders (84-102 dBA), shearers (85-99 dBA), auxiliary fans (84–120 dBA), continuous mining machines (78–109 dBA), and roof bolters (92–103 dBA) represent some of the noisiest equipment in underground coal mines. Jewels, gold ingots, chains, calombigas and earrings were handed down from antiquity and inherited from their ancestors. [62] By the beginning of the 21st century the booming and increasingly complex mining sector in mineral-rich countries was providing only slight benefits to local communities, especially in given the sustainability issues. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. In addition, the price of gold increased dramatically in the 2000s, which increased gold mining; for example, one study found that conversion of forest in the Amazon increased six-fold from the period 2003–2006 (292 ha/yr) to the period 2006–2009 (1,915 ha/yr), largely due to artisanal mining.[59]. The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore, especially a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing. - The act or … See more. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. As the 21st century begins, a globalized mining industry of large multinational corporations has arisen. Mining [v. Mining in the Philippines began around 1000 BC. Blasting was much faster than fire-setting and allowed the mining of previously impenetrable metals and ores. [22] Early French explorers who encountered the sites[clarification needed] made no use of the metals due to the difficulties of transporting them,[22] but the copper was eventually traded throughout the continent along major river routes. The water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed, ores and driving simple machinery. Retrieved August 27, 2007, A culture of Improvement. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014. [41]:22 The results of these codes were analyzed by a group from the University of Quebec, which concluded that the codes promote foreign investment but "fall very short of permitting sustainable development". Public awareness increase, where government should act as a bridge between public and initiative for a successful outcome of the policy is an important element to be considered. [5], Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. These generally relate to financing standards such as the Equator Principles, IFC environmental standards, and criteria for Socially responsible investing. The process of mining from discovery of an ore body through extraction of minerals and finally to returning the land to its natural state consists of several distinct steps. & Rogers, J. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Picture Rock 7.5 – Minute Quadrangle Sante Fe County, Central New Mexico. This estimation is used to conduct a pre-feasibility study to determine the theoretical economics of the ore deposit. Mining meaning in Urdu: کان کنی - Kan Kuni meaning, Definition Synonyms at English to Urdu dictionary gives you the best and accurate urdu translation and meanings of Mining and Kan Kuni Meaning. Otis E. Young. Gases in the mine can lead to asphyxiation and could also be ignited. Turquoise dated at 700 AD was mined in pre-Columbian America; in the Cerillos Mining District in New Mexico, estimates are that "about 15,000 tons of rock had been removed from Mt. The science of extractive metallurgy is a specialized area in the science of metallurgy that studies the extraction of valuable metals from their ores, especially through chemical or mechanical means. The largest underground mine is Kiirunavaara Mine in Kiruna, Sweden. London is known as the capital of global "mining houses" such as Rio Tinto Group, BHP Billiton, and Anglo American PLC. Gold dagger handles, gold dishes, tooth plating, and huge gold ornaments were also used. Definition of mining in English. mining meaning in English. [66] Therefore, the outcome assessment in terms of failure or success of the new EITI regulation does not only "rest on the government's shoulders" but also on civil society and companies. By the early 2000s, community development issues and resettlements became mainstream concerns in World Bank mining projects. This can be accomplished through chemical means such as smelting or through electrolytic reduction, as in the case of aluminium. Learn more. Mining is the industry and activities connected with getting valuable or useful minerals from the ground, for example coal, diamonds, or gold. Then, the Push-beam Transfer Mechanism (PTM) automatically inserts a 19.72-foot (6.01 m) long rectangular Push-beam (Screw-Conveyor Segment) into the center section of the machine between the Powerhead and the cutter-head. Canadian stock exchanges have a particular focus on mining companies, particularly junior exploration companies through Toronto's TSX Venture Exchange; Canadian companies raise capital on these exchanges and then invest the money in exploration globally. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps. Some outstanding examples of Philippine jewelry included necklaces, belts, armlets and rings placed around the waist. Mine definition: Mine is the first person singular possessive pronoun . [68] Among other things, limited scope of the EITI involving disparity in terms of knowledge of the industry and negotiation skills, thus far flexibility of the policy (e.g. [20] The natives were also known for the pieces of jewelry made of other precious stones such as carnelian, agate and pearl. De-mining definition: the process of removing landmines | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples As miners dug deeper to access new veins, flooding became a very real obstacle. They were worked as treadmills with miners standing on the top slats. Civil engineering design parameters are used in the design of the waste dumps, and special conditions apply to high-rainfall areas and to seismically active areas. [10] He also captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage, eventually producing 26 tons per year. Mining companies in most countries are required to follow stringent environmental and rehabilitation codes in order to minimize environmental impact and avoid impacting human health. Between 1932 and 1999, copper in use in the US rose from 73 kilograms (161 lb) to 238 kilograms (525 lb) per person. The deepest mine in Europe is the 16th shaft of the uranium mines in Příbram, Czech Republic, at 1,838 metres (6,030 ft),[84] second is Bergwerk Saar in Saarland, Germany, at 1,750 metres (5,740 ft). The deepest open-pit mine in the world is Bingham Canyon Mine in Bingham Canyon, Utah, United States, at over 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). [58] Of all of these categories, oil and gas extraction remains one of the largest in terms of its global economic importance. Many examples of such devices have been found in old Roman mines and some examples are now preserved in the British Museum and the National Museum of Wales.[13]. Landlords who owned the base metals and coal under their estates then had a strong inducement to extract these metals or to lease the deposits and collect royalties from mine operators. Proper ventilation, hearing protection, and spraying equipment with water are important safety practices in mines. In 1992 the World Bank began to push for privatization of government-owned mining companies with a new set of codes, beginning with its report The Strategy for African Mining. Room and pillar mining often leads to retreat mining, in which supporting pillars are removed as miners retreat, allowing the room to cave in, thereby loosening more ore. Additional sub-surface mining methods include hard rock mining, which is mining of hard rock (igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary) materials, bore hole mining, drift and fill mining, long hole slope mining, sub level caving, and block caving. - Of or pertaining to mines; as, mining engineer; mining machinery; a mining region. Definition of mining in English Dictionary; Noun PL minings PRE mini-SUF-ing +-. Large drills are used to sink shafts, excavate stopes, and obtain samples for analysis. The container molecules are able to selectively separate the gold from the solvent without the use of water stripping." Western cities such as Denver and Sacramento originated as mining towns. (1) But like many industries, mining is affected by … Mining definition, the act, process, or industry of extracting ores, coal, etc., from mines. In 2018, led by Chemistry and Biochemistry professor Bradley D. Smith, University of Notre Dame researchers "invented a new class of molecules whose shape and size enable them to capture and contain precious metal ions," reported in a study published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Aryee, B., Ntibery, B., Atorkui, E. (2003). Mining in hard and soft rock formations require different techniques. Finally, landfill mining involves sites where landfills are excavated and processed. One patented high wall mining system uses augers enclosed inside the Push-beam that prevent the mined coal from being contaminated by rock debris during the conveyance process. "Principles: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)", "Report of 5th EITI Global Conference in Paris, 2011", "Advancing the EITI in the Mining Sector: Implementation Issues", "Promoting Transparency in the Extractive Sectors: An EITI Training for Tanzania Legislators", Mining, Sustainability and Risk:World Bank Group Experiences, The Challenges of Development, Mining Codes in Africa And Corporate Responsibility, "NORA Mining Sector Council | NIOSH | CDC", "Mission | Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)", "Trends in worker hearing loss by industry sector, 1981–2010", "Summary of Longwall and Continuous Miner Section Noise Studies in Underground Coal Mines", "Worker exposure and equipment noise in large surface coal mines", "Evaluating hearing loss risks in the mining industry through MSHA citations", "TauTona, Anglo Gold – Mining Technology", "TauTona to take 'deepest mine' accolade", "Mineral deposits: from their origin to their environmental impacts", "Chuquicamata's Life Underground Will Cost a Fortune, but is Likely to Pay Off for Codelco | Copper Investing News", "http://www.macfarlanes.com/media/1467/landfill-mining-new-opportunities-ahead.pdf", "Study shows around £360 million of metals could be mined from just four landfill sites", "http://www.elfm.eu/Uploads/ELFM/FILE_79F81D49-34DC-4B5B-9BFC-5E5101CE7520.PDF", "Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining", Gold mines may owe their origins to bacteria, An introduction to geology and hard rock mining, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mining&oldid=990985098, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2013, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from December 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2013, Articles needing additional references from July 2018, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Make the environment-poverty link and introduce cutting-edge wealth measures and. [42], This was followed by the Global Mining Initiative which was begun by nine of the largest metals and mining companies and which led to the formation of the International Council on Mining and Metals, whose purpose was to "act as a catalyst" in an effort to improve social and environmental performance in the mining and metals industry internationally. [88], 95% of the energy used to make aluminium from bauxite ore is saved by using recycled material. They built numerous aqueducts to supply water to the minehead. [20] According to Antonio Pigafetta, the people of Mindoro possessed great skill in mixing gold with other metals and gave it a natural and perfect appearance that could deceive even the best of silversmiths. Chalchihuitl using stone tools before 1700. This identifies, early on, whether further investment in estimation and engineering studies is warranted and identifies key risks and areas for further work. Other methods include shrinkage stope mining, which is mining upward, creating a sloping underground room, long wall mining, which is grinding a long ore surface underground, and room and pillar mining, which is removing ore from rooms while leaving pillars in place to support the roof of the room. mine verb (GET CURRENCY) [ T ] to use special software to try to obtain new cryptocurrency (= digital currency produced by a public network rather than by a government): Since 2009, the number of … This leads to a mathematical resource estimation to estimate the size and grade of the deposit. Prospecting potential mining sites, a vital area of concern for the mining industry, is now done using sophisticated new technologies such as seismic prospecting and remote-sensing satellites. The early Filipinos worked various mines of gold, silver, copper and iron. An example is the in-use stock of copper. The deepest open-pit mine with respect to sea level is Tagebau Hambach in Germany, where the base of the pit is 293 metres (961 ft) below sea level. New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Open-File Report DM-49. It is also common practice to rehabilitate dumps to an internationally acceptable standard, which in some cases means that higher standards than the local regulatory standard are applied. Robert Friedel. Once all the ore that the mine can produce profitably is recovered, reclamation begins to make the land used by the mine suitable for future use. American English: mining. Due to high transportation cost and theft during transportation the cost for generating electricity is normally high. Coal mining has historically been a key industry in Cape Breton, and with the government pullout miners will be left with few alternatives for work. In 1997, Latin America's largest miner Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) was privatized. [6] At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Mining is heavily affected by the prices of the commodity minerals, which are often volatile. [69], The World Bank has been involved in mining since 1955, mainly through grants from its International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, with the Bank's Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency offering political risk insurance. Find sentence, usage, examples in English. The entrance process is voluntary for each country and is monitored by multiple stakeholders including governments, private companies and civil society representatives, responsible for disclosure and dissemination of the reconciliation report;[62] however, the competitive disadvantage of company-by company public report is for some of the businesses in Ghana at least, the main constraint. This includes mine planning to evaluate the economically recoverable portion of the deposit, the metallurgy and ore recoverability, marketability and payability of the ore concentrates, engineering concerns, milling and infrastructure costs, finance and equity requirements, and an analysis of the proposed mine from the initial excavation all the way through to reclamation. Due to differences in the social structure of society, the increasing extraction of mineral deposits spread from central Europe to England in the mid-sixteenth century. In the early colonial history of the Americas, "native gold and silver was quickly expropriated and sent back to Spain in fleets of gold- and silver-laden galleons,"[24] the gold and silver originating mostly from mines in Central and South America. [94] However, although the first landfill mine opened in Tel Aviv, Israel in 1953, little work has followed due to the abundance of accessible ores. Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Noise studies have been conducted in several mining environments. Do Canadian mining companies operating abroad face weaker environmental regulations? Miner definition, a person who works in a mine, especially a commercial mine producing coal or metallic ores. Other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District. [14] The overwhelming dependency on iron for military purposes spurred iron production and extraction processes. Some mining, including much of the rare earth elements and uranium mining, is done by less-common methods, such as in-situ leaching: this technique involves digging neither at the surface nor underground. liberty of the countries to expand beyond the minimum requirements and adapt it to their needs), creates another risk of unsuccessful implementation. Show Examples. The codes based on this report are influential in the legislation of developing nations. Retrieved August 27, 2007, Bloom, M.J. & Denison, M. (2012) Environmental management for extractives, PROFESSIONAL EVIDENCE AND APPLIED KNOWLEDGE SERVICES, Swenson JJ, Carter CE, Domec J-C, Delgado CI (2011), For an overview of the Bank and mining, see, Cultural achievements of pre-colonial Philippines, Learn how and when to remove this template message, cut and fill mining operation in hard rock, International Council on Mining and Metals, International Organization for Standardization, Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Swaziland National Trust Commission – Cultural Resources – Malolotja Archaeology, Lion Cavern", "ASA – October 1996: Mining and Religion in Ancient Man", "Mining Greece Ancient Quarries in Thassos", "Mining Greece the Goldmines of Alexander the Great", The General Mining Act of 1872 has left a legacy of riches and ruin, "Mechanical Seals | How Mechanical Seal Work? Mining Meaning In Urdu. She grew up in a rural coal mining town. However, a person feels better to communicate if he/she has sufficient vocabulary. However, in some areas, particularly in the developing world, government regulations may not be well enforced. The gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. As the coal recovery cycle continues, the cutter-head is progressively launched into the coal seam for 19.72 feet (6.01 m). mining. Maynard, S.R., Lisenbee, A.L. [95], "Underground mining" redirects here. Mining in Europe has a very long history. Waste dump designs must meet all regulatory requirements of the country in whose jurisdiction the mine is located. [47] In 2015, Barrick Gold spilled over 1 million liters of cyanide into a total of five rivers in Argentina near their Veladero mine. For other uses, see, The extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth. The widespread adoption of agricultural innovations such as the iron plowshare, as well as the growing use of metal as a building material, was also a driving force in the tremendous growth of the iron industry during this period. 2. Learn the translation for ‘mining’ in LEO’s English ⇔ German dictionary. Renewable energy applications are becoming an alternative or amendment. [48] In central Finland, Talvivaara Terrafame polymetal mine waste effluent since 2008 and numerous leaks of saline mine water has resulted in ecological collapse of nearby lake. Bulk sample - A large sample of mineralized rock, frequently hundreds of tonnes, selected in such a manner as to be representative of the potential orebody being sampled. [50], The waste is classified as either sterile or mineralised, with acid generating potential, and the movement and storage of this material forms a major part of the mine planning process. The oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the Ngwenya Mine in Eswatini (Swaziland), which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old. Some passages are Air Shaft - A vertical opening into a mine for the passage of air. i.] Meaning and Definition of mining. With the exploration of the West, mining camps were established and "expressed a distinctive spirit, an enduring legacy to the new nation;" Gold Rushers would experience the same problems as the Land Rushers of the transient West that preceded them. Mining companies can be classified based on their size and financial capabilities: New regulations and a process of legislative reforms aim to improve the harmonization and stability of the mining sector in mineral-rich countries. [82] East Rand Mine in Boksburg, South Africa briefly held the record at 3,585 metres (11,762 ft), and the first mine declared the deepest in the world was also TauTona when it was at 3,581 metres (11,749 ft). Both solar and wind power plants can contribute in saving diesel costs at mining sites. [79] Coal mines had the highest hearing loss injury likelihood.[80]. These are oil and gas extraction, coal mining, metal ore mining, nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying, and mining support activities. Other metals would often wait for railroads or canals, as coarse gold dust and nuggets do not require smelting and are easy to identify and transport. 2. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Mining Claim News From The Diggings™ Learn more about the Bureau of Land Management, Public Land Survey System, and mining claims. Mining is the process of digging things out of the ground. At other parts of the site, they penetrated the water table and dewatered the mines using several kinds of machines, especially reverse overshot water-wheels. These and other developments such as the Philippines 1995 Mining Act led the bank to publish a third report (Assistance for Minerals Sector Development and Reform in Member Countries) which endorsed mandatory environment impact assessments and attention to the concerns of the local population. Since most metals are present in ores as oxides or sulfides, the metal needs to be reduced to its metallic form. Today, surface mining is much more common, and produces, for example, 85% of minerals (excluding petroleum and natural gas) in the United States, including 98% of metallic ores.[32]. [54] In 2002, Chile and Peru were reportedly the major mining countries of South America. Use of water power in the form of water mills was extensive. 2. However, it was the Romans who developed large scale mining methods, especially the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts. [33][34], Surface mining is done by removing (stripping) surface vegetation, dirt, and, if necessary, layers of bedrock in order to reach buried ore deposits. [28] As with the California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century, mining for minerals and precious metals, along with ranching, was a driving factor in the Westward Expansion to the Pacific coast. The largest and second deepest open-pit copper mine in the world is Chuquicamata in northern Chile at 900 metres (3,000 ft), which annually produces 443,000 tons of copper and 20,000 tons of molybdenum.[85][86][87]. Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science and statistics with an overall goal to extract information (with intelligent methods) from a data set and transform the information into a comprehensible structure for further use. Sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any company seeking international financing there! 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